What Is Hybrid Manufacturing and Classification of hybrid machining process

Technological improvement of machining processes can be achieved by
combining different machining actions or phases to be used on the material
being removed. A mechanical conventional single cutting or MA
action process can be combined with the respective machining phases
of electrodischarge (ED) in electrodischarge machining (EDM) or ECD
in ECM. The reason for such a combination and the development of a
hybrid machining process is mainly to make use of the combined advantages
and to avoid or reduce some adverse effects the constituent
processes produce when they are individually applied. The performance
characteristics of a hybrid process are considerably different from
those of the single-phase processes in terms of productivity, accuracy, and
surface quality Depending on the major machining phase involved in the material
removal, hybrid machining can be classified into hybrid chemical and
electrochemical processes and hybrid thermal machining. 
Classification Of hybrid machining
Classification Of hybrid machining 
 Hybrid chemical and electrochemical processes. 
In this family of
hybrid machining processes, the major material removal phase is either
CD or ECD. Such a machining action can be combined with the thermal
assistance by local heating in case of laser-assisted electrochemical
machining (ECML). In other words, the introduction of the
mechanical abrasion action assists the ECD machining phase during
electrochemical grinding (ECG) and electrochemical superfinishing (ECS).
Ultrasonic-assisted electrochemical machining (USMEC) employs an
USM component with ECM. The mechanical action of the fluid jet assists
the process of chemical dissolution in electrochemical buffing (ECB).
Kozak and Rajurkar (2000) reported that the mechanical interaction
with workpiece material changes the conditions for a better anodic dissolution
process through mechanical depassivation of the surface. Under
such conditions, removing thin layers of oxides and other compounds
from the anode surface makes the dissolution and smoothing processes
more intensive. Significant effects of the mechanical machining action
have been observed with ultrasonic waves. The cavitations generated
by such vibrations enhance the ECM by improving electrolyte flushing
and hence the material removal from the machined surface.
 Hybrid thermal machining. 
In this case the main material removal
mechanism is a thermal one. The combination of this phase with the
ECD phase, MA action, and ultrasonic (US) vibration generates a family
of double action processes. The triplex hybrid machining is also achievable
by combining the electrodischarge erosion (EDE) phase, the ECD
action, and the MA in grinding (G). Such a combination enhance the rate
of material removal and surface quality in electrochemical discharge
grinding (ECDG) and the other hybrid processes.
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