There are four primary sources of energy viz. petroleum, natural gas and natural liquids, coal and wood.  Excepting wood, all the common sources have finite supplies.  The lift-time is estimated to range from 15 years for natural gas to nearly 300 year for coal.  Therefore, as these non-renewable sources are consumed, the mankind must turn its attention to longer-term, permanent type for energy sources.  The two most significant such sources are nuclear and solar energy. 
 Nuclear energy requires advanced technology and costly means for its safe and reliable utilization and may have undesirable side effects.  Solar energy, on the other hand, shows promise of becoming a dependable energy sources without new requirements of a highly technical and specialized nature for its wide spread utilization.  In addition, there appear to be no significant polluting effects from its use. But solar energy is very large life in exhaustible source of energy.  The power from the sun intercepted by the earth is approximately 1.8 x 10¹¹ MW, which is many thousands of items larger than the percent consumption rate on the earth of all commercial energy sources.
A solar water disalation can be also sized to fit the demand more accurately.  Although healing systems deal with extreme loads only a few days of the year, they will have to be large enough to meet those extremes. 
A solar water heating system, on the other hand, will have roughly the same load day in any day out, except in unusual applications, the design load should be close to the normal daily load Without the problems of widely fluctuating demand.  Solar water disalation can be relatively cheaper and simpler than solar building water filter. A problem common to all types of solar heating is the variable nature of sunshine.  Solar water disalation however often have an additional advantage over solar space heating systems because the requirements for hot water are less rigid than those for space heating.
There are however, several aspects of solar water heating that make it potentially hotter investment of energy money and effort than solar building heating.  For one thing, the demand for hot water is relatively constant throughout the year.  Thus the collector and the other parts of the solar water disalation will be working harder and longer to produce the savings I fuel that eventually must pay for the higher initial cost of the system.

Solar energy Collector is a heat exchanger capable of using solar radiation to increase the internal energy and temperature of a working fluid.  In its simplest form it consists of a tube exposed to solar radiation.  The Solar isolation is partly absorbed by the tube, the temperature of the tube wall increases until the heat loss from the tube to the surroundings is equal to the solar energy absorbed. 
 To improve the thermal performance of this simple system fins can be attached to the tube to increase the are exposed to solar insulation and the heat losses can be reduced by placing one or two layers of glass between the incoming solar energy and the surface absorbing it.  If a fluid such as water passes through the tube, the useful energy delivered to the working fluid, qu, is
Qu = m cp (T f, out – T f,in)
M = mass flow rate through collector,
Cp = Specific heat at constant pressure of working fluid.
T f,out – T f,in  =  Temperature rise of working fluid passing through collector.
The basic elements of a solar water heater are:
i. Flat plate collector
ii. Storage tank.
iii. Circulation system
The plate collector consists
1. Aluminium body
2. Glass wool insulation
3. Aluminium foil
4. Copper fins
5. Block chroms sheet and
6. Tuffen glass
The aluminium body over the insulation and collective unit the glass wool insulation is placed on the bottom of aluminium body. The aluminium foil is placed on the insulation to reflect the solar radiation. The copper fins are used to circulate the water.  
They are welded with upper and lower header tubes. The block chrome sheets cover the copper fins.  They are used to absorb the solar radiation. The copper fins with block chrome sheet is called collective unit. The tuffen glass is used to transfer the solar energy to collective unit.  Hence it is called as transparent cover.  It covers the aluminium body.
It consists of
1. Inner copper tank
2. Insulation
3. Outer M S tank
The inner copper tank is used to store the hot water. The storage capacity of the tank is 60 lit. The insulation is made of glass wool.  It is used to control the heat conduction. The outer tank is made of aluminium.  It is used to cover the storage tank.
It consists of 
1. Cold water inlet
2. Cold water outlet
3. Hot water inlet
4. Hot water outlet
5. Header tubes

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